While Bernie claimed to the bitter end that he acted alone, prosecutors have files charges against 15 of his closed colleagues. The five noted in this story appear to be mostly back office, operations staff that seemingly could not have not known. But with the level of deception and deceit that was carried out over years, maybe Mr. Madoff was just that convincing.
The trial is expected to last five months. The prosecutors will have to prove criminal intent, and based on mostly circumstantial evidence, that could be significant a challenge.